miércoles, 20 de febrero de 2008

Zinaparo

Zináparo

It means to “Lugar of obsidiana”, although another translation talks about to the word like “lugar of médicos”, chichimeca is an origin word.

History
It is a pre-Hispanic population, but one assumes that its legal foundation happened in 1613, according to recognitions of the government of the New Spain and was known with the name of San Juan. In 1822, Zináparo was a congregation of carriers and vicaría of the Mercy. Its population dedicated itself to agriculture and arriería. In 1863, possession let consider itself and it was elevated like municipality, adding itself to the district of the Mercy. In 1894, its category of municipality in agreement with the Territorial Law was eliminated, sent that year. In 1903, the category of municipality is granted to him again.
Chronology of historical facts 1613. Legal foundation of the town. 1863. The 1 of June is constituted inº municipality. 1894. It is reduced to possession. 1903. The 10 of December, the municipality rank is granted to him again.

Average Physicist
Location It is located to the north of the State, in 20 coordinatesº10’ of North latitude and 102º00’ of west longitude, to a height of 1.840 meters on the level of the sea. It limits the north with the Mercy, the east with Numarán and Penjamillo, and the south and the west with Churintzio. Its distance to the State Capital is of 145 Kms. by the freeway of the Mexico-Guadalajara West.
Extension Its surface is of 112,13 Km² and it represents the 0,19 percent of the total of the State.
Orography Their relief constitutes the cross-sectional volcanic system and the Purépero mountain range and the Zináparo hill.
Hydrography There are no fluvial currents of importance, solely flowing
Climate Its climate is tempered, with rains in summer. It has an annual pluvial precipitation of 900,0 millimeters and temperatures that oscillate between 14,0 and 30,0º centigrade ones.
Main ecosystems In the municipality it dominates the prairie, with nopal, cardonal, scrub, plants, subynermes and pastizal, is mixed forest, with pine and encino. Its fauna is satisfied by squirrel, weasel, coyote, tórtola and duck.
Natural resources The logable forest surface, is occupied by encino, the nonlogable one by scrubs of different species.
Characteristics and use of the ground The grounds of the municipality date from the periods cenozoic, quaternary and tertiary, they correspond mainly to those of the type chernozem. Its use is fundamentally cattle dealer and in smaller agricultural and forest proportion.

Sociodemográfico Profile
Ethnic groups According to the General Census of Population and House 1990, in the municipality they inhabit 8 people who speak some indigenous language, and of which 3 are men and 5 are women. Within the two main indigenous languages we can mention tarahumara and zapoteco.
Demographic evolution In the Municipality of Zináparo in 1990, the population represented the 0,15 percent of the total of the State.For 1995, a population of 4.631 inhabitants has itself, its rate of growth is of -3,05 annual percents and the density of population is of 41,30 inhabitants by square kilometer. The number of women is relatively greater to the one of men. For the year of 1994, one has occurred to 158 births and 42 deaths.
Religion The predominant religion Catholic is followed in smaller scale by the witnesses of Jehovah and the Evangelical one.

Social infrastructure and of Communications
Education The educational services that are distributed in the municipality are: prestudent, primary and secundaría. In addition the INEA takes care of groups of alphabetization in primary level and secundaría.
Health The demand of medical services is taken care of by a medical unit of the IMSS-SOLIDARIDAD in the municipal head, as well as particular doctor's offices and doctors.
Supply The supply centers are: tianguis weekly and misceláneas stores.
Sport The municipal head has 3 football grounds and 8 fields of basquetbol and a recreational center. In the interior of the municipality we found fields of basquetbol and soccer in most of the localities.
House In 1990 the municipality counted on 1.159 houses, the majority is own and of fixed type. The materials used mainly for their construction are in importance order, in walls: marinate, asbestos partition, block, lamina, wood and cardboard; in ceilings: it tiles, slab of concrete, asbestos lamina, metallic, cardboard shake and lamina.
Services publicPotable Water 85 % Drainage 60 % Paving 65 % Public Lighting system 90 % Electrification 95 % Pantheon 100 % Garbage collection 80 % Market does not have Sign does not have Cloración of water 90 % Public Security 85 %In addition, the city council administers to the services of parks and gardens, buildings public, sport and recreational units, monuments and sources, among others.
Mass media Ample cover in syntony of radio AM-FM, national television channels, newspapers and magazines of state and regional circulation.
Routes of communication The municipality this official notice by federal highways 15 and 37 in its sections Morelia-Zamora and Carapan-La Mercy and to 10 km of the relationship in Churintzio with the Freeway of the Mexico-Guadalajara West. Kms counts on 16. of local roads of terraceria that intercommunicate their localities. It has service of mail, telephone, fax, and telegraph.

Economic Activity
Agriculture Their main cultures are: Maize, chick-pea, sorghum, frijol. The 100% of culture lands they are of weather.
Cattle ranch One mainly grows up bovine, pig, ovine, goat cattle, birds and beehives.
Industry In the municipal head they are installed familiar microcompanies that they produce roofing tile, tiles and cooked earthen floors.
Tourism By its natural conditions, the municipality takes own places for the tourist development, constituting an activity of vital economic importance for the municipality.
Commerce This constituted by commercial establishments like: stores of misceláneas, cattle agricultural products and, construction equipments, etc. Some of the necessities are supplied in the municipalities of Piedad and Purépero.
Services The capacity of these in the municipal head is sufficient to take care of the demand, offering itself: Feeding, professional attendance, service of taxis, foreign transport and ticket sale of airplane to several destinies of the United States.

Attractive Cultural and Tourist
Monuments Within architectonic monuments in the municipality it emphasizes the Temple of San Juan Baptist.
Celebrations, dances and traditions 12 of December religious Celebration in honor to the virgin of Guadalupe. October. The last Sunday of October the religious festividad of the Gentleman of the Pardon is made. 24 of June religious Celebration of San Juan Baptist.
Music Wind mariachi and bands.
Crafts Elaboration of roofing tiles, mud brick and floor tiles.
Gastronomy The foods consist of carnitas of pig and mass of guajolote, as well as sweet whose base of preparation is the pumpkin.
Tourist centers It exists in the municipality a recreational center with cenadores, sport fields, infantile games, hoisted areas and panoramic Vista.

Government
Municipal head: ZináparoThis located to 145 Kms. of the State Capital by the freeway of the Mexico-Guadalajara West. Their main economic activities are agriculture, commerce and the pottery. Its population in 1995 was of 2.465 inhabitants.
Main localities:The Tiger Its distance to the municipal head is of 6 kms. Their main economic activities are agriculture and the cattle ranch. Its population in 1995 was of 890 inhabitants
San Barbosa Its distance to the municipal head is of 6 Kms. Its main activity is agriculture. Its population in 1995, was of 371 inhabitants.
Zipaquio Its distance to the municipal head is of 10 kms. Their main economic activities are agriculture and the cattle ranch. The population in 1995 was of 297 inhabitants.
Chronology of the municipal presidents
1942 - Salvador Solorio 1944 - Jesus Mozqueda 1945 - Jose González 1946 - J. Aid Go'mez1947 - Eligio Duarte Piceno 1950 - J. Jesus Sanchez Salgado1951 - Angel Verduzco Infant 1954 - Jose Zamudio Castro1956 - J. Jesus Govea Trejo1963 - J. Polished Refuge Negrete1966 - Eduardo Moral Goatherd1969 - J. Refuge Garci'a Zavala1972 - Guillermo Montoya Cervantes1975 - Adrián Sanchez Martinez1978 - Eduardo Sources Go'mez1981 - J. Jesus Zamudio1984 - Miguel Martinez Covarrubias1987 - Guillermo Montoya Cervantes1990 - Salvador Ruíz Salgado1993 - Manuel Martinez Covarrubias1996 - Juventino Carranza Infant1999 - J. Jesus Perez Berber2002 - 2004 Mauricio Montoya.