miércoles, 6 de febrero de 2008




Zitácuaro
The meanings are varied that occur to the name of Zitácuaro, nevertheless, it says that it comes from Tzita that is equivalent to grandfathers, ancestor, greater, of “cue” who mean altar, sanctuary, and of “ro” that is a locative, reason why its meaning is “place sanctuary of the greater ones”. The etymologies of Zitácuaro are otomí-chichimeca, by virtue of which the first inhabitants of Zitácuaro were the otomíes seated in the north of the Valley of located Quencio and chichimecas to the south. Gilberti, maintains that it is the unit of measurement of sembradura, that is one zitacua; those that maintain that it means “rope” or “cord”. The meaning that gives to the Lawyer Ruiz, is “Escondido Place”.
ShieldThe shield of Zitácuaro this cross military revolt with a heart or dress to the center. In the quarter first we found a field of sinople (green), meaning hope, abundance and freedom, an arc that symbolizes the opened door to Michoacán, by the side orients, with the silhouette of the Pelón hill to the bottom. In the quarter second, it appears the Cerrito of Independence and the Hill of the Cacique, to the bottom. In the middle of both quarters a rising sun is seen, symbolizing the tempered climate of the municipality. In the quarter third, in field of azur (blue) that it denotes realism, Majesty and beautiful, a parchment represents the Supreme American National Meeting, first test of Insurgent Government, and under the parchment, a garland of laurel, symbol of inspiration and victory. In the quarter fourth, also in field of azur, a working bee in a cell of the penitentiary, it symbolizes the work and the commercial activity of its inhabitants. In center a heart or dress divided in two triangles, with a pyramid in the superior one that represents the pre-Hispanic time of the municipality and three ignited torches that mean three fires undergone by the city. In the superior part, is a pebetero with eternal flame, in tribute to the patriotic ones fallen, symmetrical leaves of acanto and streamlined they finish off the head of the shield. Immediately a border with eleven pads, one by each possession of the municipality; under these a strip with the name of “Heroic Zitácuaro”. The shield has bordure in gold, symbol of wealth, purity, certainty and force, where it is ***reflxed mng “Door of East”.
History
The region of Zitácuaro, located in the valley of Quencio, was inhabited from before the arrival from the Spaniards to our country. First in arriving at the region, they were individual of the race pride, otomí and mazahua, although later, around year 1330, it was occupied by the tarascos to the control of Yringari. In the time of the conquest, the natural ones participated in the resistance in against of the Spaniards and to the control of Cuanicuti, they were allied of the Aztecs, defending the great Tenochtitlán. Zitácuaro, was conquered spiritually by the franciscanos friars, in the middle of century XVI and Salazar gave itself in charge to Gonzalo. In century XVII, in 1765, it appears with the name of Villa of San Juan Tzitacuaror and he included/understood eleven towns, between which we have San Juan that were head, San Andrés, San Mateo of the Corner, San Bartholomew, San Francisco the New one, San Felipe, San Miguel Timbineo, San Francisco Quatepec, San Miguel Chichimiquillas, Santa Maria and finally, the one of Santa Isabel de Chandio, in where were two churches, one that called the Hospital and another one of the town.
In Zitácuaro, campaigns in favor of our independence took place great. First, the Insurgent gift Benedicto Lopez, I rise in arms in 1811 and it gave to the seat to the Insurgent Ignacio to him Lopez Rayon, when this one from return to the city of Forecastle, got to operate to the interior by orders of the gentlemen Hidalgo and Beyond. Later, the 19 of August of 1811, Ignacio Lopez Rayon, it established the “Sovereign American National Meeting”, that was the first Insurgent government. The realists, wishing to ruin that government, attacked the population twice and in the second occasion, the 12 of January of 1812, Zitácuaro was set afire and destroyed. In 1831, the 10 of December it was constituted in Municipality. In the year of 1855, 1º of April, the population returns to be attacked and to be burned by the santanistas due to the support of the zitacuarenses to the liberal party.
During the war against the French intervention, the General gift Vicente Riva Palace, that he was governor of the State of Mexico, not being able to remain in Toluca, it came to take root to Zitácuaro, in where it found to the group of guerrillas formed by Morals, Donaciano Ojeda, the Alzati, the Vernal one, etc., that were defending of the Republic against the intervention and the empire. Zitácuaro was the only point of Michoacán that had not fallen in being able of the imperialistic ones, nevertheless, the 15 of April of 1865, the army, hurt by the defeat suffered in Tacámbaro days before, attacked the city setting afire it by third occasion. In him year of 1858, the 17 of November and by official decree of the federal government, was ordered that it occurred to Villa of San Juan Zitácuaro, the title of “City of Independence”, and the 20 of April of 1868, President Juárez, decreed that the title was granted of “Heroic”, by the distinguished services of its inhabitants in favor of the freedom. This city, was during many years, center of a strong nucleus of men of liberal ideas, those that maintained in a newspaper to which they called “The 93”.
Illustrious personages
Benedicto Lopez. Hero of the Independence of Mexico. (By the end of century XVIII-1817) Arturo Bernl. General Constitutionalist. It was born in Zitácuaro the 25 of January and died in the city of Mexico. It was gotten up to the Revolution in 1913, with the forces of the Gral. Clary. He was Governor of the North Territory of the Baja California. (1882-1945). Ricardo Carrillo Durán. Politician. (1904) -). Samuel Ramos. Writer and Diplomat. It was born in Zitácuaro, Mich. in 1897. It died in the city of Mexico in 1959. Philosopher and educator. It entered in the School of San Nicholas in 1909. It attended first and the second year of Medicine in Morelia. In 1917 it happened to the city of Mexico where it took third in the Military Medical School. One specialized in the Sorbona, the School of France and the University of Rome. To its return, it continued its educational workings and she was head of University Extension, director of Intellectual Cooperation and Senior officer of the Secretariat of Public Education; between its works they emphasize: “Hypothesis”; “20 Years of Education in Mexico”; “The Stravinsky Case”; “The Profile of the Man and the Culture in Mexico”; “Towards a New Humanismo”; “History of the Philosophy in Mexico; “Philosophy of the Artistic Life”. (1897-1959). Jose Luviano Rentería.- General Revolutionary. (1883-1925). Crescencio Morales. - Defending of the mother country. Natural of Zitácuaro. It formed National guard report of that population to fight the French. It died in Irimbo the 12 of October of 1864. Remigio Yarza. - Insurgent. It was born in Zitácuaro, in the last third of century XVIII. It was an intellectual element in the war of Independence; it fought to construct a government and because the elements that fought had an authority to that to defend. It was commanded to in the last shoot days of the year of 1819 by the guerrilla of ferocious instincts and undisciplined father Towers. (Aim of century XVIII-1819). Uriel Avilés. - Journalist and politician. It was born in Zitácuaro the 25 of January and died in the city of Mexico. It signed the Constitution sent in Querétaro. (1885-1956) Darío and Marcos Alzati. - Original of the old district of Zitácuaro. They were brave republican guerrillas, of the famous “chicanos” that fought next to the Gral. Vicente Rivapalacio against the French Intervention and the call Empire of Maximiliano.


Chronology of historical facts
1330. The region is occupied by the tarascos to the control of Yringari. 1765. It appears with the name of San Juan Tzitaquaro, including/understanding eleven towns. 1811. Benedicto Lopez, rises in arms in favor of Independence and gave to the seat to Ignacio Lopez Rayon. The 19 of August, Ignacio Lopez Rayon settled down the “Supreme American National Meeting”, that was the first insurgent government. 1812. The 12 of Zitácuaro January are set afire and destroyed by the realistic forces, headed by General Calleja. 1831. Zitácuaro is constituted in Municipality. 1855. 1º of April, the population returns to be attacked and to be burned, now by the santanistas. 1858. The 17 of November, an ordering occurs so that the villa receives I title of City of Independence. 1865. The 15 of April, the Belgian army attacked the city, setting afire it by third occasion. 1868. President Juárez, the 20 of April decreed that the title of “Heroic ” was granted, by the distinguished services of his inhabitants in favor of the freedom.
Average Physicist


Location It is located to the east of the State, in the coordinates 19º26' of North latitude and 100º22' of west longitude, to a height of 1.940 meters on the level of the sea. It limits the north with Tuxpan and Ocampo, the east with the State of Mexico, the south with Juárez and Susupuato, and the west with Jungapeo. Its distance to the State Capital is of 150 kms.
Extension Its surface is of 498,00 Km2 and represents the 0,84 percent of the total of the State. Orography Their relief constitutes the cross-sectional volcanic system, the mountain range of Zitácuaro, hills of Cacique, Santa Catarina, Coyota, Aquila, Ziráhuato and Pelón and valleys of Zitácuaro, San Felipe, Ocurio and the Powder magazine. Hydrography Its hydrography constitutes by the rivers San Andrés and San Juan Viejo, the streams Crescencio Morales, Dry, Gold, Macutzio and springs of cold water and the Prey of the Forest. Climate Its climate is tempered, with rains in summer. It has an annual pluvial precipitation of 813,2 millimeters and temperatures that oscillate between 9.3º and 23.0º centigrade. Main ecosystems In the municipality it dominates the mixed forest, with pine, cedar, encino, aile and ash the tropical forest decíduo, with zapote, handle, huisache, guaje and pochote, and coniferous forest with oyamel, pine and junípero. Natural resources The logable forest surface, is occupied by pine and encino, the nonlogable one, is occupied by thorny scrubs. Characteristics and use of the ground The grounds of the municipality date from the periods Paleozoic and Mesozoic, correspond mainly to those of the type and sol, vertical and glycol. Its use is fundamentally forest and in smaller agricultural proportion and cattle.
Sociodemográfico profile
Ethnic groups According to the General Census of Population and House 1990, in the municipality they inhabit 3.734 people who speak some indigenous language, and of which 1.757 are men and 1.977 are women. Within the two main indigenous languages we can mention mazahua and otomí.
Demographic evolutionIn the municipality of Zitácuaro in 1990, the population represented the 3,1 percent of the total of the State. For 1995, a population of 130.499 inhabitants has itself, its rate of growth is of the 4,3 annual percent and the density of population is of 262,04 inhabitants by square kilometer. The number of women is relatively greater to the one of men. For the year of 1994, to 5.512 births and 648 deaths have occurred.
Religion The Catholic religion occupies 92%, the Protestant the 3,9%, people who do not profess any type of religions the 1,3% and other relations like Seventh Day, Mormones, Presbiteriana, Witnesses of Jehovah and Luz of the World correspond the 0,9%.
Social infrastructure and of Communications
EducationAccount with the levels of: prestudent, primary, secondary, in addition to telesecundaria, preparatory, in addition to CONALEP, CET; superior education; also schools of indigenous education and special education, and particular schools of prestudent, primary, secondary and preparatory
Health Account with 5 Medical Units of external consultation of the IMSS, 2 General Hospitals of the IMSS, 8 Medical Units of External Consultation and a Hospital of the ISSSTE; 4 Units of External Consultation and a hospital of the Secretariat of Health; 10 deprived Clinics, 1 Delegation of the Red Cross and 4 medical units of transport and 139 doctor's offices.
SupplyAccount with 3 municipal markets, a commercial center, a power station of supplies, 2 stores of the ISSSTE, 1 tianguis, 26 rural warehouses and silos, 105 commerce of several commercial turns and a sign.
Sport Account with 2 sport units: The sport Jewel and Powder magazine, 2 parks: DIF and Vikingo; an ecological park: Cerrito of Independence; 2 football grounds: Rafael Baeza and the Saleciano; a Bullring and a Charro Linen cloth.
House Account approximately with 19.738 houses (INEGI 1990), predominating the construction of partition, stone and slab of concrete with a 50%, followed of those of marinates and ceiling with roofing tile occupies 24% and the constructions of wood and ceiling with roofing tile and/or lamina, representing 22%.
Services publicPotable water 80% Drainage 100% Electrification 90% Paving 70% Public lighting system 90% Garbage collection 80% Mercado 70% Sign 70% Pantheon 100% Cloración of Water 70% Public security 60% Parks and Gardens 70% Buildings Public 90%
Mass media Account with 2 local, repeating broadcasters of television, radio communication and newspapers.
Routes of communication To the municipality number 15 Morelia-Mexico communicates the federal highway. Account with state highways Zitácuaro-Huetamo, San Felipe-Angangueo, Zitácuaro-Aputzio de Juárez, Zitácuaro-Nicholas Romero and Zitácuaro-Manzanillos. Account with railway, aeropista, central service of buses, taxis, transport in combis. As well as telephone, telegrafié Economic activity
Agriculture It represents 11% of the economic activity, cultivating maize, wheat, frijol, alfalfa, tomato and vegetables. The fruitgrowing represents 9% and is occupied by the avocado, guayaba, apple, pear, banana, mamey, chabacano, plum, capulín, higo, files, lemon, quince, orange, tamarind, tejocote, grapefruit and tuna.
Cattle ranchIt represents 6% of the economic activity. One grows up bovine, pig, ovine, goat cattle and birds. Industry It represents 14% of the economic activity, makes dress, footwear, you make of articles of wood, cork, factory wood furniture.
Tourism It represents 2% of the economic activity of the municipality.
Commerce Account with grocer's, stores of supermarket, stationery stores, ironworks, bakeries, tortillerías, representing 16% of the economic activity. Services Account with services of power station of buses, hotels, motels, restaurants. It represents the 2,1% of the economic activity.
Logging It represents 3% of the economic activity, one operates wood, it draws resin from and encino coal.
Attractive Cultural and TouristHistorical monuments Monument to the Supreme American Meeting; monuments to Emilio Garci'a, Melchor Ocampo, Benito Juárez, Manuel Buen Good day, to the Flag, Garden Moor of the Cannon shot, Municipal Palace. Celebrations, dances and traditions 5 of February. Celebration and agricultural, commercial fair and craftswoman. 19 of August. Civic celebration, commemoration of the Supreme American national Meeting 31 of August. Virgin religious celebration of the Remedies 15 and 16 of September. Celebrations mother countries, commemoration of the beginning of the Independence of Mexico.12 of December Virgin religious Celebration of GuadalupeCrafts Account with orfebrería in filigree, elaboration of huaraches, wood toys , elaboration of gabanes and rebozos. Gastronomy Slight of sheep, pozole of maize, barbecue of lamb. Tourist centers Ceremonial center of Ziráhuato (archaeological zone), ruins of Zacapendo (archaeological zone), cave paintings of Camembaro, Prey of the Forest (beautiful by his landscapes and it fishes).
and post office
Municipal head: Heroic ZitácuaroTheir main economic activities are the commerce and agriculture. Account with 74.824 inhabitants.
Main localities:
Ten. Aputzio de Juárez Its main economic activity is agriculture and the cattle ranch. Kms is to 10,3. of the municipal head. Account with 1.232 inhabitants. Ten. San Felipe of the Alzati Its main economic activity is the commerce and agriculture. Kms is to 7,7. of the municipal head. Account with 2.081 inhabitants. Ten. Zirahuato Its main economic activity is agriculture and the fruitgrowing. Kms is to 15. of the municipal head. Account with 2.298 inhabitants. Ten. Curungueo Its economic activity is agriculture and the fruitgrowing. Kms is to 2,5. of the municipal head. it has 2.027 inhabitants. Ten. Nicholas Romero Its main economic activity is agriculture and the fruitgrowing. Kms is to 2. of the municipal head. Account with 3.200 inhabitants. Ten. Donaciano Ojeda Its main economic activity is agriculture and logging. Kms is to 12. of the municipal head. Account with 1.059 inhabitants. Ten. Francisco Serrato Its main economic activity is the agriculture and advantage of forest resources. Kms is to 16. of the municipal head. Account with 1.958 inhabitants. Crescencio Morales Its main economic activity is artisan agriculture and. Kms is to 20. of the municipal head. Account with 2.310 inhabitants. Tables of Enandio Its main economic activity is agriculture and fruitgrowing. Kms is to 16,5. of the municipal head. Account with 477 inhabitants. Chronology of the municipal presidents
1940 - Pablo Lopez 1941 - Blond Santiago Blanchi 1942 - 1943 Wilibaldo Carmona 1944 - Jesus Bucio 1945 - Juan Tenorio Carmona 1946 - Joaquin Bustamante 1946 - 1947 J. Antonio Couto 1947 - Juan Soli's Mendoza 1948 - Pedro Rodriguez 1948 - 1949 J. Sacramento Arismendi 1950 - Eduardo Mercado 1952 - Fidel Urquiza Rock 1953 - Profr. Reynaldo Valdespino Soto 1954 - Youngest child Lopez M. 1955 - 1956 Fermín Esquivel M. 1957 - Tte. Alfredo Tenorio Camena 1958 - Jose Maria Aburto G. 1959 - Gabriel Camporedondo de God 1960 - 1961 Profra. Eufemia Manjarrez Colin 1962 - 1963 Emiliano Carmona González 1965 - Nicholas Gutiérrez Ayala 1966 - 1967 Lic. Daniel Camacho Acevedo 1967 - 1968 QFB Pedro Martinez Cerecero 1969 - 1970 Ing. Agustín Avila Suárez 1970 - Profr. Sarahí Gutiérrez Victoria 1971 - Profr. Fabian Alcántara Romero 1972 - 1974 Miguel Nateras Lopez 1975 - 1977 Lic. Daniel Camacho Acevedo 1978 - 1980 Arq. Herrera Robert Medina 1981 - 1983 Lic. Luis Leon Bueno Alvarez 1984 - 1986 Ing. J. Ascent Orihuela Bárcenas 1986 - Profr. Hermenegildo C. Carbajal 1987 - 1989 Biol. Monastery Contreras Esquivel 1990 - 1992 Lic. Hieronymite Morales Pallares 1993 - 1995 Lic. Aldo Emilio Tello Carrillo 1996 - 1998 Carlos Zepeda Morales 1999 - 2001 Arming to Ruiz Santana 2002 - 2004 Silvano Aureoles