miércoles, 12 de marzo de 2008

Tlalpujahua

Tlalpujahua
It means “Tlalli”, earth and “Poxohuac”, thing puffed up or soft; reason why it is translated like “in the proud or soft earth ", their root he is nahua.



History
Tlalpujahua it is a town of pre-Hispanic origin, inhabited by natives of the racemazahua or mazahuatlBefore the arrival of the Spaniards, the place it was a point of constant conflict, because it is located in the limits of both powerful empires, tarasco and the Aztec. First they arrived at this place approximately in 1460 and they did later it Aztecs, commanded by its emperor Axayácatl.
With the Spanish conquest of the kingdom tarasco towards 1522, the charges were created and Tlalpujahua formed part of the charge of Tarimeo, granted to Gaspar of Avila. When being elevated the bishoprics of Michoacán and Mexico several conflicts were provoked to determine to what of them Tlalpujahua would belong, being due to the managements ofDon Basque of Quiroga, the one that it will comprise definitive of Michoacán.
In 1560 received the affluence of Spaniards, by the finding of silver and gold mines and the title occurred ofReal of Mines of TlapujahuaTen years later Greater Mayorship named him, and depending directly on the Virrey. In 1575 it was elevated the parish ofDon Antonio de Morales, immediate successor of Don Basque of QuirogaIn 1593 the mayor of the mines of Tlalpujahua, Gaspar de Soli's, by orders of the Virrey carried out first congregation of natives and the first outline and construction of houses of the new town. 4 of July of 1603 the congregation was constituted ofReal of Mines of Tlalpujahua, counting then with 14 talents of operation.
In 1765, according to information of doctor Felipe de Valleza, the parish of Tlalpujahua, included the towns of San Miguel Tlacotepec, San Juan Tlalpujahuilla, Santa Maria, Our Lady of the Remedies and San Pedro Tarimangacho. At the beginning of century XVIII, a fire destroyed part of Tlalpujahua which it caused that important buildings and documents they would be reduced to ashes. In 1820 Tlalpujahua he was exhausted by the independence war and most of his left mines. By 1822 the first one was constituted city council and the 10 of December of 1831 was clear to him like municipality, being head of party of the Department of East.
21 of May of 1859 the title was granted to him of Rayon Mineral, to perpetuate the memory of the brothersLópez Rayon. In 1861 it was head of the district made up of Angangueo, Contepec and the same Tlalpujahua. In 1937 a flood it destroyed the mines Two Stars and the main ones districts of the town, which brought about economic deterioration and the emigration of the population towards others points of the State and neighboring organizations.Personages I illustrate
Ignacio Lopez Rayon. - he was secretary of the father of the mother country, Don Miguel Noble (1773-1832) Tomás R. Of the Moral. - Engineer, was Director of the Commission of Statistic and Geography of the State of Mexico (1791-1847) Cenobio Paniagua. - Musical and composer of michoacana music and first writer of you operate in Mexico (1821-1892) José Maria Lopez Rayon. - Insurgent (1767 -) Francisco Lopez Rayon. - Insurgent (1782-1815) Rafael Lopez Rayon. - Insurgent ( - 1823 Ramón Lopez Rayon. - Insurgent (1775-1839) Elvira Vargas. - Writer and Journalist Luis Eduardo Jurado. - Painter
Chronology of historical facts
1558The Spaniards redescubren the mines that previously the natives exploded and the life becomes of the town and the region.1576The mayor of the mines, Gaspar Soli's, by you order of the Virrey, carried out `first indigenous congregation and the first one outline of the new city. 1600The construction begins of some chapels like the one of Our Lady of Carmen and the one of San Lorenzo. One is based the temple and convent of San Francisco. 1603The 4 of July were constituted, the congregation of the real one of mines of Tlalpujahua. 1733The mining height is pronounced with the mines of Santa Ana and Corona. 1735The delegation is constituted miner. 1750The construction begins of the new parochial church. 1758Several lawsuits acquire importance by subjects and problems of the Earth, that were had come provoking from 1736. 1769The operation enters decay miner. 1810The 24 of October, Ignacio Lopez Rayon, sent an important manifesto in please independence. 1812They settle down in the hill of the Rooster, the brothers Rayon, doing of him a strength for the manufacture of guns, smelting of guns, increase of troops, settles down also the press. 1813The 30 of April, the realistic troops they take Tlalpujahua and some days later, they force the Insurgents to leave the hill of the Rooster. 1814In the month of December it is streamlining the vicar of the parish of Tlalpujahua, father Juan Antonio Rosemary, that had been gotten up to the movement Insurgent. 1815Francisco Rayon recovers the town of Tlalpujahua. 1820As a result of the War of Independence is left the mining activity. 1822The first city council is constituted, but it is recognized until the 10 of December of 1831. 1825At the request of Don Mariano Michelena, representative of the Mexican Government, the English resume the operation of the mines in Tlalpujahua. Three years later would fail. 1859The title is granted to him of Rayon mineral the 21 of May, in memory of brothers Rayon. 1861Distrital Head was denominated and it included/understood: Angangueo, Contepec and Tlalpujahua. 1862At the time of the Reformation, the conservatives occupy the place of Tlalpujahua, the one that it is recovered later by liberal general Rafael Cuellar. 1874The michoacana legislation one takes care to try the necessary elements for mining development of Tlalpujahua. 1899They are descruben and they are exploded with height the mines Two Stars. It returns the height and the prosperity miner. 1909The 3 of April, Don Porfirio Diaz it visits Tlalpujahua with the intention of knowing the mines Two Stars. 1920In this town refuge by some time general Francisco J. Múgica. 1937The tragedy happens where they are destroyed the mines of Two Stars, by the flood of muds you haul of them of the mine and leaving buried the Chapel of Our Lady of the Carmen.

Half Physicist

Location It is located to the northwest of the State, in the coordinates 19º48' of North latitude and 100º10' of length the west, to a height of 2.580 meters on the level of sea. It limits the north with Contepec, the east and the south with State of Mexico and, to the west with Senguio and Maravatío. Its distance to the State Capital is of 156 km.
Extension Its surface is of 190,86 Km² and it represents the 0.32 percent of the total of the State.
Orography Its relief is constituted by the system volcanic cross-sectional, the mountain range of Tlalpujahua and the hills Brief, Field of the Rooster, Eagles, San Miguel and Santa Maria.
Hydrography Its hydrography is constituted by the river San jOse; by the streams Naranjas and Ciénega; by the cold and thermal water springs; and by the prey Brockman and Estanzuela.
Clima Its climate is tempered with rains in summer and tempering with rains all the year. It has a precipitation pluvial annual of 1.003,5 millimeters and temperatures that they oscillate of 6,1 to 22.7º centigrades.
Main ecosystems In the municipality it dominates the coniferous forest with pine, oyamel and junípero; and the mixed forest with pine, encino and cedar. Its fauna is satisfied by cacomixtle, raccoon, weasel, armadillo, duck and garganey.
Resources natural The forest surface timber is occupied by pine and encino, the nontimber one is occupied by scrubs. municipality counts on deposits of gold, silver and receives.
Characteristics and use of the ground The grounds of the municipality date from the periods paleozoic and mesozoic, they correspond a mainly those of the podzólico type of mountain. Its use she is fundamentally forest agriculturist and in minor cattle proportion.



Profile Sociodemográfico
Groups ethnic According to the General Census of Population and House 1990, in the municipality they inhabit 58 people who speak some índigena language, and of which 28 are men and 30 are women. Within the main índigenas languages we can mention the Purépecha and the Purepecha.
Evolution demographic In the municipality of Tlalpujahua in 1990, the population it represented the 0,6 percent of the total of the State. It stops 1995, a population of 18.376 inhabitants has itself, its rate of growth is of the -2,8 annual percent negative rate of growth must to factors such like the emigration to the interior and outside of the country mainly, and the densidad of population is of 96,28 inhabitants by square kilometer. The number of women he is relatively greater to the one of the men. It stops the year of 1994, 979 births and 193 have occurred deaths, also therefore the migration and immigration in the municipality has been considerable since it presents/displays emigration towards other states in search of work.
Religion The religion that predominates in the municipality is Catholic, followed in smaller proportion by the Evangelical one.



Infrastructure Social and of Communications
Education In the municipality education establishments exist initial Pre-school, primary, eg: secondary. For the mean level superior counts on two establishments that they offer the Baccalaureate.
Salud The demand of medical services of the population of the municipality, public is taken care of by organisms and prevailed Clinical of Health eg: assigned to the Secretariat of Health, the Peripheral Position of the ISSSTE, Clinic of the IMSS and the Doctor's offices Individuals.
Abasto The municipality counts on a municipal market, tianguis once per week, commerce with diverse commercial turns, stores CONASUPO and sign.
Sport In the municipality a sport unit exists, with field of fast soccer, fronton, basquetbol, volibol. In addition a baseball field is had and a Municipal Audience. In the municipal head and distributed in all localities fields of basquetbol exist.
House The municipality counts approximately on 4.038 houses built of as the construction predominates of adobe and it tiles, followed in smaller proportion by the one of partition and slab of concrete, wood and other materials. (INEGI 1990)
Services public Potable water 80_ Drainage 40_ Electrification 60_ Paving 50_ Public lighting system 60_ Garbage collection 70_ Market 50_ Sign 70_ Pantheon 100_ Cloración of the Water 70_ Public security 90_ Parks and Gardens 60_ Buildings Public 50_
Means of communication The municipality counts on the following mass media: Newspaper, radio and television.
Routes of communication One communicates by federal highway 126 Morelia - Atlacomulco - Mexico, counts as well on state highways as they are Tlalpujahua-Sale de Bravo and Santa Maria of Angel. Account in addition with telephone, telegraph, mail and services of foreign buses.



Activity Economic
Agriculture The agricultural activity is second in sequence of importance being its main cultures: the maize, kidney bean and bean. _ Of its economic activity represents the 10.
Cattle ranch Cattle grows up: Bovine, pig, ovine and birds meaning the 10 _ of the economic activity of the municipality.
Industry The municipality counts on an established industry being account is its main economic activity with You make of Spheres, Packings of Cardboard, Pencil sharpener, Laminated quarry and Clothes. _ Of its activity represents the 29 economic.
Tourism The municipality counts on several tourist sites between which they emphasize: The National Park “Brother Lopez Rayon ", the Museum of Mineralogy and History, Exconventos and Capillas of century XVI and XVII.
Commerce The municipality counts on medium and small commerce where the population acquires articles of first and second necessity.
Services The capacity of these in the municipal head is sufficient in order to take care of the demand offering itself: lodging and feeding in the hotels and restaurants of place.



Attractive Cultural and Tourist
Monuments historical The municipality counts on several architectonic monuments eg: the Monument to Ignacio Lopez Rayon, the Exconvento Sanctuary of the Virgin of the Carmen of the century XVI, the Parish of Tlalpujahua of century XVII, the Chapels of San Miguel of century XVII, San Pedro, San Juan Joaquin and Santa Maria of Los Angeles.
Museos The municipality counts on the Museum of Mineralogy and History and House of the Brothers Lopez Rayon.
Celebrations, dances and traditions 16 julio. Celebration in honor of the Virgin of Carmen 8 agosto. Celebration in honor to the Virgin of San Juan 13 November. Civic act in honor to the Brothers Lopez Rayon
Music Music essentially is of character popular.
Crafts In the municipality Christmas spheres make manually and pottery.
Gastronomy The typical food of the municipality is: the barbecue of hole, the head of head of cattle to the furnace and the soup of fungi.
Centers tourist In the municipality several tourist sites are located eg: the National Park, the Museum of Mineralogy and History, the Exconvento of the Virgin of the Carmen, churches and chapels of century XVI and XVII.



Government
Head Policeman: Tlalpujahua Main localities: San Francisco of the Kings Its main activity is agriculture and trains. It is located to 14 km, of the municipal head and counts with 793 inhabitants
Tlacotepec Their main activities are agriculture and the operation of the quarry. It is located to 4 km of the municipal head and it has 375 inhabitants
Tlalpujahuilla Their main activities are agriculture and forestry. It is located to 2,5 km of the municipal head and counts with 775 inhabitants
San Pedro Tarímbaro Its main activity is agriculture. It is located to 13 km of the municipal head and it has 290 inhabitants
Remedies Its main activity is agriculture. It is located to 31 km of the municipal head and roadside ditch with 608 inhabitants
Santa Ma. of the Angels Their main activities are agriculture and the pottery. 3 km of the municipal head are located and count on 1198 inhabitants.
Chronology of the municipal presidents
1949 - Linen Rebollo1950 - Moisés Bastida Gasca 1951 - Agustín Enríquez Santamaria. 1952 - Abbot Garci'a 1951 - 1953 Simón Garci'a 1954 - 1956 Moisés Bastida Gasca 1957 - 1959 Luis Valenzuela Fertile valley 1960 - 1962 Isaiah Monroy Duarte 1963 - 1965 Otilio Carmona Esquivel 1966 - 1968 Ricardo Garci'a Bastida 1969 - 1971 Rodolfo Vargas Escamilla 1972 - 1974 Rogelio Market Martinez 1975 - 1977Joaquin Muñoz Orta 1978 - 1980 Filiberto Marin Jiménez 1981 - 1983 Gustavo Navarrese Bernal 1984 - 1986 Otilio Carmona Esquivel 1987 - 1989 Rogelio Market Martinez 1990 - 1992 Moisés Garci'a Escutia 1993 - 1994 Jose Luis Muñoz Ruiz 1995 - Robert Rangel Saavedra 1996 - 1998 Gabriel I. Rodriguez Hernandez 1999 - 2001 Gabriel Colín Salazar 2002 - 2004 Manuel Colín.